EXTRA BOLD – Carmen Westermeier

In ihrer Arbeit EXTRA BOLD zeigt Carmen Westermeier, in der für sie typischen forschend-kritischen Weise, Ergebnisse einer langjährigen Auseinandersetzung mit der Hyper(un)sichtbarkeit dicker_fetter Körper. Für frame[less] führt sie mit Fotografie und Text durch die Sphären der Sicht- und Unsichtbarkeit normierter Vorstellungen von Körper und Gewicht. Dabei zeichnet sich eines deutlich ab: das Bild des dicken_fetten Körpers als widerständigem Akteur.

We are all visible and invisible at times […], but one’s  situation becomes “hyper” when (in)visibility becomes  socially oppressive.  

My parents were
pleased that I had
gotten my body
under control. I
went back to
school,
and my classmates
admired my new
body, offered me
compliments,
wanted to hang out
with me. That was
the first time I
realized that weight
loss, thinness
really, was social
currency.


Hunger, Gay, Roxane, S.51

Doch womöglich sind die ent­scheidenden Gründe für die Stigmatisierung dicker Menschen weder allein in der Frage nach den angenommenen Ursachen des hohen  Körpergewichts noch nach den individuellen Anstren- gungen zur Reduktion des Körper­gewichts zu suchen, sondern in einer soziokulturell verankerten ästhetisch motivierten Ablehnung dicker Menschen. Dies jedenfalls legt eine Studie von Vartanian und Novak (2011) nahe, die den weit­ verbreiteten Ekel“, (disgust) vor Körperfett als entscheidenden Grund für Gewichtsdiskriminierung ansieht und  wesentlich relevanter einschätzt als die Frage nach den möglichen Ursachen des erhöhten Körpergewichts. 

Fat Studies in Deutschland, Rose, Lotte/Schorb, Friedrich (Hrsg.), S. 3 20

These stereotypes assume that being fat is a choice— that a corpulent body is evidence of overeating and thus a disordered, undisciplined self. Conversely, a lean figure represents self­mastery and control. Such virtues are tied to notions of good health, beauty, and broad cultural values like efficiency, speed, mobility—all of which reflect and support the prevailing economic system of  consumer capitalism.  

Shameful Bodies, Lelwica, Michelle Mary, S.103

Fighting the fat self
[…] I argue that this
paradox is best
explained by the
phenomenon of
hyper(in) visibility.
The constant
attention that is
placed on
“obesity” by the
media, politicians,
and the medical
community
perpetuates the
idea that fat is—or

should be—a tem-
porary state,

because
“responsible fat
people” should
always be trying to
lose weight. The
majority of women in this study identified with these
larger cultural values and have internalized fatphobia—
they remain hidden or in the closet.
As a result, their enactment of stereotypical behaviors is
a reflec­tion of internalized oppression.
Hyper(In)Visible, Gailey, Jeannine A.,S.37

[…]common sexual activity known as the ‘Rodeo’. 

This practice involved a group of about ten cadets, who  would gather in a hotel room. The boys would make an agreement that one of them would go out to a local pub or club, and find the most obese woman he could, pretend he was sexually interested in her, make her feel desired, and then lure  her back to the hotel room. The other nine boys would wait in the hotel  room for the couple, hiding behind couches, in the bathroom, in  wardrobes. Once the young male cadet and the “fat” girl arrived, the  boy would seduce the girl, and begin to undress her, encouraging her to  be­ lieve that he was about to have sex with her. He would then ask her  to kneel on the bed on all fours, and he would pro­ duce a scarf to  blindfold her. The “fat” girl would be lulled into thinking this was just a  kinky start to sex with the young cadet. Instead, the young boy would  call out a signal to the other boys and they would run out from their  hiding places. One by one, they would jump on the “fat” girl’s back,  kicking at the soft flesh of her hips and belly, riding her like she was  some sort of animal. They would ignore her tears and her screams, and once they had all had their turn, and the  “fat” girl was completely humiliated, they would kick her out of the  room.  

The ‘Fat’ Female Body, Murray, Samantha, S. 122 

According to blogger Virgie Tovar, it’s both a product of the larger  cultural hang­ups around body image and mas­culinity itself. “Fatphobia  in so many ways is about hating and policing women and our bodies,  but what I’ve realized recently is that in some ways, the fatphobia that  fat men experience is also a result of misogyny,” she writes. To be  overweight is, thus, to be considered simultane­ously weak and  feminine, so much so that the Grindr commandment against “fats and  femmes” is almost always a package deal. […] These ideas are  particularly harmful for gay men, many of whom might have grown up  internal­ izing negative messages about queer people from a young age.  Homophobia itself is rooted in misogyny: It’s bad to be gay, because having sex with men is something that a woman does.  

As Simon Moritz
explains in the
Huffington Post, slurs
like “fairy” and “sissy”
have a dual meaning
rooted in anti­gay and
anti­woman bias:
“They prize
masculinity by
demonizing
femininity.” […] The
gay community’s
toxic masculinity
problem isn’t just an
issue for those who
are told they “need to
lose a few pounds,”
but everyone who
is told that they don’t
fit an unrealistic
standard of physical
perfection—including
those who are too
skinny, too short, or
not white.

Fat Shaming, Toxic Masculinity, and the Gay Male Beauty Myth, Lang, Nico

However, the mind/body split contributes to self objectification and hyper(in)visibility when fat women see  their bodies as abject or as objects of revulsion—  something separate from the real them.  

Hyper(In)Visible, Gailey, Jeannine A.,S. 58 

Assumption: If you’re fat, there’s a thin person inside  you. New Version: And if you’re thin, perhaps one day  you’ll realize your true fat potential. […] Assumption: Fat  people eat all the time. New version: Thin people eat all  the time, too. (It’s a great survival skill.) In fact, studies  show that fat people eat the same stuff that thin people  do, from burgers to broccoli. […] In our diet­crazy culture,  when a fat person eats a bit of food, everyone notices.  […] Assumption:  

[…] Fat people are smelly, stupid, lazy, gluttonous,  sexless freaks. New version: These are the same slurs  that have been applied to every stigmatized group, from  people of color to the disabled. In the psychology of  oppression, if you can belittle someone and deny their  humanity, then it’s okay to be hateful and prejudicial to  them.  

Fat!So?, Wann, Marilyn, S.84f 


Biografie

Carmen Westermeier

Carmen Westermeier ist Medien- und Performance-Künstlerin und Aktivistin in Stuttgart. Sie widmet sich einer feministischen Epistemologie und verfolgt eine körper-politische, künstlerische Praxis. Als freie Referentin kooperiert sie mit verschiedenen Initiativen deutschlandweit oder unterrichtete an der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität zum Thema Gender und Kunst. An der ABK Stuttgart forscht sie als wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin zu diskriminierungskritischen Positionen in der Kunstpädagogik.


Literatur

Wann, Marilyn (1998): Fat! So? Because you don’t have to apologize for your size, Berkely, USA:  Ten Speed Press. 

Lelwica, Michelle Mary (2017): Shameful Bodies. Religion and the culture of physical  improvement, London, England: Bloomsbury Academic. 

Gay, Roxane (2017): Hunger. A Memoir of (My) Body, New York, USA: HarperCollins Publishers  Inc. 

Rose, Lotte/Schorb, Friedrich (Hrsg.) (2017): Fat Studies in Deutschland: Hohes Körpergewicht  zwischen Diskriminierung und Anerkennung, Weinheim, Deutschland: Juvena Beltz. 

Gailey, Jeannine A. (2014): The Hyper(in)visible Fat Woman: Weight and Gender Discourse in  Contemporary Society, New York, USA: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN. 

Murray, Samantha (2008): The ‘Fat’ Female Body, London, England: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN. 

Lang, Nico (2017): Fat Shaming, Toxic Masculinity, and the Gay Male Beauty Myth. https:// www.thedailybeast.com/fat­shaming­toxic­masculinity­and­the­gay­male­ beauty­myth [zuletzt aufgerufen  09.11.2021]